What is a Charitable Trust?
A Charitable trust is a legal entity which can be set up by anyone who has decided to commit themselves in principle to setting aside some of their assets or income for Charitable causes. The main obligation is to work within the charitable purposes and the powers set out in the Trust Deed.
Features of a Trust
A Trust is created when a donor attaches a legal obligation to the ownership of certain property based on his confidence placed in and accepted by the donee or trustee, for the benefit of another.
The persons who intends to create the trust with regard to certain property for a specified beneficiary or beneficiaries at large and who places his confidence in another for this arrangement is called the Author of the Trust; the person who accepts the confidence is called the Trustee; the person for whose benefit the confidence is accepted is called the Beneficiary; the subject matter of the trust is called Trust Property.
Charity is a matter for State control, so different States of India have their own legislation in the form of Trusts or Endowment Acts or even Societies Act to govern and regulate public charitable NGOs.
Trustees control the Trust
The Trustees control the trust's assets and decide how the income (and capital) of the trust is to be distributed, and ensure that it is in line with the charitable purposes of the trust.
The author of the trust must indicate with reasonable certainty the following:
Intention to create trust
Purpose of the trust
Beneficiaries of the trust, and
The trust property
A public trust is of permanent and indefinite character. A public trust benefits the public at large or at least a section of the community.
The property forming subject matter of the trust must be capable of being transferable to the beneficiary - thus property which is inalienable by virtue of public policy or statute does not form valid subject matter for a trust. In terms of section 8 of the Indian Trusts Act, there cannot be as a trust of a beneficial interest under a trust i.e. there cannot be a trust upon a trust.
Flexibility in naming your Trust
You can choose what to call your trust - your family name, or that of an honourable person. The organisation can also be called a "foundation' or "charity' or any similar terms as these words are practically interchangeable in a legal sense.
Advantages and Disadvantages of registration under the Indian Trusts Act
The advantages and disadvantages related to NGOs registered under the Societies Act are equally applicable to trusts.
i Simple process of registration;
ii Simple record-keeping and even simpler regulations;
iii Low possibility of interference by the regulator; and
iv Exemption from tax due to charitable nature of operations;
i Tax exemption extended to societies may apply to public trusts only to the extent the Income Tax department accepts their activities as being charitable.
ii. As a charitable institutional form, in essence inappropriate for the for-profit, financially sustainable strategic goal of finance operations;
iii No system of equity investment or ownership, thereby, making it less attractive for commercial investors interested in microfinance;
iv Commercial investors generally regard the investments in such entities risky primarily on account of their lack of professionalism and managerial practices and are, therefore, reluctant to commit large volumes of funds to such NGOs;
v In accordance with Section 45S of the RBI Act, 1934, no unincorporated bodies are allowed to accept deposits from the public. Organizations registered under the Societies Registration Act and the Trust Act are considered unincorporated bodies. Therefore, according to the law, they are not even allowed to collect savings from their clients; and
vi Also vulnerable to the implication under the money lenders (prevention of usurious interest rates) acts of various state governments.
NON - PROFIT COMPANY - is identical to an ordinary company in all respects except that it is not established for profit and commercial gain. It is also called a Section 25 Company and is a voluntary association of people, registered under the Indian Companies Act, 1956.
Objectives of a non-profit company can include promotion of commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other useful object. Profits are applied for promoting only the objects of the company and no dividend is paid to its members (Section 25 (1) (a) and (b) of the Companies Act, 1956). A non-profit company may be public or private. If the non-profit company is a private company a minimum of only two members is required to form it. However, if the non-profit company is for a public purpose, then a minimum of seven are needed. A 'section 25 company´ is eligible for certain exemption from provisions of law and concessional rate of fees etc.
Section 11 of the Income Tax Act, exempts the income of Charitable Societies / Trusts from the charge of tax on the fulfillment of certain conditions. Apart from this, sections 12, 12A, 12AA and 13 and certain clauses of Section 10 of Income Tax Act also govern the issue of taxation of such organizations. However NGOs need to apply to the income tax authorities to get this exemption.
For availing exemption under Section 11, the Society / Trust is required to fulfil the following conditions:
a. Registration: For registration under Section 12AA with the Commissioner of Income Tax, the Society or Trust or institutions should apply within one year from the date of creation of Society or establishment of institution, in Form No 10A (in duplicate) along with the memorandum of association or bye-laws of the society in original or the document evidencing creation of the Trust, together with a copy thereof and two copies of the accounts of the society relating to three previous years (or for the year during which the Society or Trust was in existence, in case of a new Society). The Commissioner shall call for documents or information and hold enquiries regarding the genuineness of the Society/ institution. After being satisfied about the charitable or religious nature of its objects and genuineness of its activities, he will pass an order granting registration, and if he is not satisfied, he will pass an order refusing registration, subject to the condition that an opportunity of being heard shall be provided to the applicant before an order of refusal to grant registration is passed and the reasons for refusal of registration shall be mentioned in such order. The order granting or refusing registration has to be passed within six months from the end of the month in which the application for registration is received and a copy of such order shall be sent to the applicant society/institution. If the Commissioner of Income Tax is satisfied that the activities of any institution are not genuine or are not being carried out in accordance with the objects of the institutions, he shall, after giving reasonable opportunity of being heard to the concerned institution, pass an order in writing cancelling the registration granted under Section 12AA.
b. Maintenance of Accounts: The Society / Trust should maintain regular books of account, supported by receipts and vouchers. The accounts shall be made on a cash basis. The Society / Trust should prepare an 'Income and Expense Account'. Any voluntary contribution received by the Society / Trust shall be deemed to be income derived from the property held under trust. Where contribution have been made with a specific direction that they shall form part of the corpus it should be so specified on the receipt issued as the same shall be exempt under section 11 (1)(d).
c. Compulsory Audit: Where the total income of the Society / Trust /institution exceeds Rs 50,000 in any previous year, the accounts of such Society / Trust are required to be audited and the audit report which shall be in Form No 10B is required to be furnished along with the return.
d. Income not to be spent for the benefit of certain persons: No part of the income or property of a Charitable Society / Trust claiming exemption under Section 11 should be used or applied for benefit of any person specified under Section 13/3, subject to certain exceptions.